The teen took the label off the bottle of pills because he "knew it was wrong" and "to have a prescription in his possession with a different name is bad," according to court documents, WXIN reported.
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Medical records showed the total claim was $233, WXIN reported.
Police also reached out to the Department of Child Services to tell them the teen may need help financially.
Smitherman admitted in a statement released to the television station that after taking the teen to one clinic where he couldn't get the treatment needed, she took him to a second, using her son's name because the student did not have health insurance. She said she knew it was wrong, but she was just worried about the student's health.
Smitherman was charged with official misconduct, insurance fraud, insurance application fraud and identity deception.
Madison County Prosecutor Rodney Cummings told WXIN, "I understand it was her desire to help a young man that was in bad shape but probably not the best example to set for young people to assume other identities and make false statements."
Cummings and his staff are considering a diversion program for Smitherman. If it is granted, there would be no criminal conviction, WXIN reported.